University of delaware
In 1996, a professor at the University of Delaware (Dr. Willett Kempton) wrote the first paper that proposed vehicle-to-grid technology to support a renewable grid. In October 2007, they started using electric vehicles to back-feed in the grid following a regional transmission organization signal. In 2013, UD created the first system entirely composed of vehicles to bid into a regional transmission organization market. The University maintains active participation in standard organizations including IEC, ISO, SAE, and NFPA, etc. Their public policy group helps create policy and law to facilitate vehicle grid integration. Their engineering group, led by Dr. Rodney McGee, partners with grid-side and automotive companies for research and development of vehicle-based distributed energy resources.